COVID 19 Trends- Part 1
Use of Melatonin in the fight against COVID-19
By Dr Ali Zaman
Melatonin is an endogenously produced molecule in all humans. As you age, the amount of Melatonin the body produces reduces drastically. This reduced level of endogenous Melatonin leads to a number of changes within the body.
How is COVID linked to Melatonin levels?
Firstly, a summary of the COVID 19 infection process.
- Inhalation of the COVID 19 virus
- Virus settles in alveoli
- Taken up mostly by Type 2 Pneumocytes (cells lining the alveoli).
- Pneumocytes release chemokines/cytokines which themselves release free radicals that damage the alveoli sac (air sacs vital for air exchange in the lungs).
- Local blood vessel dilates around the alveoli, this leads to hypoxia
- Activated Pneumocytes attracts other immune cells such as macrophages
- The macrophages also release chemokines/free radicals further damaging the alveoli
- This causes acute respiratory distress
- Long term fibrotic lung changes (part of Long COVID)
The rationale for the use of Melatonin
Melatonin is already used treat virus related disease, it has been established for as long as 30 years ago. For example, scientists had shown that the encephalomyocarditis virus (which is unique only to animals),when treated with melatonin, it prevented paralysis and death.
Semliki forest virus, West Nile virus were also similarly treated with Melatonin.
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, which is transmissible to human is also diminished in the presence of Melatonin.
Aleutian mink disease virus is another example of a virus treated with Melatonin.
MAC-19 PRO trial
Treatment of hospitalised COVID-19 infected patients with Melatonin. Ongoing study.
10 patients given high dose melatonin who were admitted with severe infection.
Clinical stabilisation and or improvement was noticed within four or five days after initiation.
All patients survived ARDS and did not require mechanical ventilation.
12 of 34 COVID-19 patients died
7 of 34 required mechanical ventilation
There are six other trials going on with melatonin, the results of which will be available very soon.
In summary, Melatonin is useful for combating Covid-19 because Melatonin reduces the cytokine and the associated oxidative stress. Melatonin is known to have both of these effects under many different experimental situation.
The virus enters the lungs and the alveolar sac, where it initiates these events and giving melatonin orally, intravenously, or by aerosol inhalation maybe effective in reducing the associated severe disease and death of these individuals.
How does Melatonin work?
Melatonin inhibits the cytokine storm and the associate acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), this is caused by or contributed to by oxidative stress. Melatonin prevents the recruitment of these inflammatory cells and their activity in terms of releasing cytokines, this is responsible for the series of events that culminate in this very serious condition.
The COVID-19 pandemic has infected hundreds of thousands and killed tens of thousands of individuals worldwide. The high mortality is caused by the uncontrolled innate immune response and destructive inflammation.
Melatonin negatively regulates the overreaction of the immune response, reducing inflammation and improving the bodies adaptive immunity against COVID 19.
The naturally occurring levels of Melatonin decrease as we get older, there is evidence and rationale suggesting it could be used as a prophylactic or treatment.
This is a summary of the current research, it is not an endorsement of any treatments, and AccessDoctor do not sell Melatonin at the time of publication.