Macrobid: This medication is an antibiotic used to treat bladder infections (acute cystitis) and works by stopping the growth of bacteria within the bladder.
Nitrofurantoin is also known by the brand names Macrobid and Macrodantin and should not be used to treat infections outside of the bladder (including kidney infections). This is because the drug is rapidly excreted by the body, and is concentrated in the bladder, making it ineffective at treating any other types of infections.
Take this medication with food as directed by your doctor, usually twice daily (every 12 hours).
Do not use magnesium trisilicate-containing antacids while taking this medication. These antacids can bind with nitrofurantoin preventing its full absorption into your system.
For the best effect, take this antibiotic at evenly spaced times. To help you remember; take this medication at the same time(s) every day.
Continue to take this medication until the full-prescribed amount is finished, even if symptoms disappear after a few days. Stopping the medication too early may allow bacteria to continue to grow, which may result in a return of the infection.
Inform your doctor if your condition persists or worsens.
Before taking nitrofurantoin, tell your doctor or pharmacist you are allergic to it; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.
This medication should not be used if you have certain medical conditions. Before using this medicine, consult your doctor or pharmacist if you have: kidney disease (this is because this drug is removed by the kidneys and requires good kidney function), a certain genetic condition (G-6-PD deficiency), and a history of liver problems due to nitrofurantoin use in the past.
Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially if you have liver and lung disease, numbness/tingling of the arms/legs, vitamin B deficiency, blood disorders (e.g. anaemia) and diabetes.
Nitrofurantoin is safe to use during pregnancy, however this medication should be used only when clearly needed. It must not be used towards the end of your pregnancy (38-42 weeks), or at the time of labour or delivery.
Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor.
This medication passes into breast milk and may have undesirable effects on nursing infants younger than 1 month old or those with a certain genetic condition (G-6-PD deficiency).
The most common side effect of nitrofurantoin is an upset stomach, however taking it either with, or straight after food will help prevent a stomach upset.
Other common side effects include headaches, nausea and diarrhoea. These side effects should not become too uncomfortable, or persist for too long, however if they do, please notify your doctor.
Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects.
Another common side effect of this medication is it may cause your urine to turn dark yellow or brown in colour, which can appear alarming at first, however this is usually harmless, a temporary effect, which will disappear when, the medication is stopped.
In some occasions however, dark brown urine can also be a sign of rare side effects (liver problems or anaemia).
Access Doctor would always recommend that you seek immediate medical attention if you notice dark urine along with any of the following symptoms:
- Stomach/abdominal pains
- Yellowing of the eyes or skin
- Tiredness, fast/pounding heartbeat.
Other signs to look out for are:
- Eye pain/vision changes
- Mental/mood changes
- Persistent/severe headaches
- Easily bruising/bleeding
Seek medical advice and speak to a doctor straight away if you notice any of these symptoms.
AccessDoctor recommends using Nitrofurantoin (Macrobid) for a short course of between 3 to 7 days. This should be long enough to treat the majority of acute and uncomplicated bladder infections.
If you are experiencing repeated symptoms of urinary tract infections, or if a 7-day course of Macrobid has not treated your symptoms fully, we suggest you should seek medical advice from a doctor for further investigation before starting another course of antibiotic treatment.
Use of nitrofurantoin (Macrobid) for prolonged or repeated periods may result in oral thrush or a new vaginal yeast infection. Contact your doctor if you notice white patches in your mouth or change in vaginal discharge or other new symptoms.
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- if you are allergic to Nitrofurantoin, other medicines containing nitrofurantoin or any of the other ingredients of this medicine (listed in section 6)
- if you have a disease of the kidneys which is severely affecting the way they work (ask your doctor if you are not sure)
- if you are in the final stages of pregnancy (labour or delivery) as there is a risk that it might affect the baby
- if you have porphyria (blood disorder)
- if in patients with G6PD (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) deficiency
- if in infants under three months of age
- if you are breast feeding a baby with suspected or known deficiency in an enzyme called G6PD (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase).
Talk to your doctor, pharmacist or nurse before taking MacroBID:
- if you have diabetes
- if you are suffering from any illness causing severe weakness
- if you have anaemia (a decrease in red blood cells causing pale skin, weakness and breathlessness); a lack of vitamin B or abnormal levels of salts in your blood (your doctor will be able to advise you)
- if you have a history of allergic reactions
- if you have any problems with your kidneys. The above conditions may increase the chance of developing a side effect which causes damage to the nerves, altered sense of feeling, like pins and needles.
- if you lack an enzyme (body chemical) called glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, which causes your red blood cells to be more easily damaged (this is more common in black people and people of Mediterranean, Middle Eastern or Asian origin. Your doctor will know)
- if you have any disease of the lungs, liver or nervous system. If you need to take MacroBID for a number of months, your doctor may want to regularly check how your lungs and liver are working
- if you have false positive results on testing your urine for glucose
- if you have urine coloured yellow or brown
- If you experience fatigue, yellowing of the skin or eyes, itching, skin rashes, joint pain, abdominal discomfort, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, dark urine, and pale or grey-coloured stools. It may be symptoms of liver disorder.
Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking, have recently taken or might take any other medicines, including medicines obtained without a prescription. If they are taken with MacroBID their effect or the effect of MacroBID may be changed. In particular, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking any of the following medicines:
- Antacids for indigestion (e.g. magnesium trisilicate)
- Medicines for gout (e.g. probenecid or sulfinpyrazone)
- Medicines for raised pressure in the eye (glaucoma), such as carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (e.g. acetazolamide)
- Medicines which make the urine less acidic (e.g. potassium citrate mixture) • Medicines for infections, known as quinolones
- Typhoid vaccine, which is given for the prevention of typhoid. If you are in doubt about any of these medicines ask your doctor or pharmacist.
MacroBID with food and drink: MacroBID capsules should be taken at meal times with food or milk. This will help to avoid stomach upset and also to help the absorption.
If you are pregnant or breast-feeding, think you may be pregnant or are planning to have a baby, ask your doctor or pharmacist for advice before taking this medicine. As far as it is known MacroBID may be used in pregnancy. However it should not be used during labour or delivery because there is a possibility that use at this stage may affect the baby. If you want to breast feed, please consult with your doctor first.
MacroBID may cause dizziness and drowsiness. You should not drive or operate machinery if you are affected this way until such symptoms go away.
Always take this medicine exactly as your doctor or pharmacist has told you. You should check with your doctor or pharmacist if you are not sure.
The normal dosage depends on the type of infection you have and instructions should be written on the label provided by the pharmacist.
For treatment of bladder infections: One capsule twice a day for THREE or SEVEN days
MacroBID should be taken with food or milk.
MacroBID may interfere with the results of some tests for glucose in the urine. Method of administration Capsules should be swallowed whole.
If you take more MacroBID than you should: Consult your doctor or pharmacist immediately or go to the emergency department of the nearest hospital. Always take any left over capsules with you, as well as the container and label, so that the medical staff know what you have taken.
If you forget to take MacroBID: Do not worry. If you remember later on that day, take that day’s dose as usual. If you miss a whole day’s dose take the normal dose on the next day. Do not take a double dose to make up for a forgotten capsule. If you are not sure ask your doctor or pharmacist.
If you stop taking MacroBID: Your doctor will tell you how long to take the treatment. Do not stop earlier than you are told, even if you feel better. If you have any further questions on the use of this medicine, ask your doctor, pharmacist or nurse.
Keep this medicine out of the sight and reach of children. Do not store above 30°C (aluminium/aluminium). Do not store above 25°C (For PVC/polyethylene/aclar/aluminium blisters). Store in the original package to protect from light and moisture. Do not use MacroBID after the expiry date which is stated on the carton. The expiry date refers to the last day of that month. Medicines should not be disposed of via wastewater or household waste. Ask your pharmacist how to dispose of medicines no longer required. These measures will help to protect the environment.
The active substance is 100mg nitrofurantoin in each capsule. The other ingredients are talc, corn starch, lactose, carbopol, povidone, sugar and magnesium stearate. The capsule shell contains gelatin, quinoline yellow (E104), titanium dioxide (E171) and FD&C Blue No.2 (E132). The printing ink contains shellac, propylene glycol (E1520), titanium dioxide (E171) black iron oxide (E172), ammonium hydroxide (E527) and simethicone.
MacroBID 100mg capsule has an opaque blue cap and opaque yellow body and bears the monogram “GS 100”. The capsules are available in blister strips of 14.